next week: Forest City Township

SALT CREEK TOWNSHIP

WILLIAM F. AUXIER, farmer and stock-raiser; P. O. Mason City ; was born
in Floyd Co., Ky., Jan. 26, 1834 ; from the age of 14 to 18 years, he followed boating on the Big Sandy and Ohio Rivers ; all the schooling he received, he got in about three
months, under immeasurable difficulties, though he is now a well-informed, self-edu- cated man, having an excellent faculty of expressing and elucidating any subject, on
any and all occasions ; in business, he has always been successful ; in 1852, he came to Mason Co., and worked here and there farming and herding cattle for wages, until 1855 ; he then commenced on his own account, and in 1856, he took his first lot of fat
cattle to New Yor-k City, being the first ever shipped by cars from Salt Creek Township. Oct. 25, 1859, he married Mary A. Denham ; she was born in Hamilton Co.,
Ohio, in 1839 ; they have three children Emma, born March 20, 1861 ; Clark, Dec.
27, 1863; Cora, Dec. 15, 1865. He owns 400 acres of good land in Salt Creek Township.

ISAAC BELLAS, farmer ; P. 0. Mason City ; was born in Luzerne Co., Penn.,
March 2, 1820 ; his advantages for a common-school education were fair for those
days ; several winters he engaged in teaching district schools, and in the summer worked
at farming. Before he moved West, Nov. 21, 1846, he married Miss Dorcas Benscoter ; she was born in the same county March 17, 1827 ; they moved to Mason Co.,
111., in April. 1854; he worked by the day, farming, until fall, when he put in a crop
of wheat for himself; the next spring, he bought the place where he now resides, in Salt Creek Township ; he has never taken any active part, politically, but has held some
township offices twice Assessor, Collector six years, and School Director ten years ; was elected Justice of the Peace once, but declined the office ; they have had eight
children James, born Oct. 4, 1847, died Sept. 15, 1849; Monemia C., born Sept. 6,
1849, died Oct. 8, 1852; Dyson B., born Jan. 17, 1853, died April 1, 1862; Susanna
E., born May 5, 1857; Sarah A., Dec. 28, 1860, died April 8, 1869; Mary J., born
Aug. 7, 1863; Ross, Feb. 25, 1866; Rosa A., Nov. 19, 1868. He owns a nice farm
of 120 acres; is a Republican, and belongs to the Order of Red Men, in Mason City.

AARON A. BLUNT, President of the First National Bank of Mason City, farmer
and stock-ra iser ; P. 0. Mason City; was born in Hart Co., Ky., Feb. 21, 1831, and
moved to Field’s Prairie, in what is now Bath Township, Mason Co., with his parents, Dec. 6, 1833 ; since his early youth, he has given his attention mainly to farming and
stock-raising; has been a Director in the First National Bank of Mason City since its organization, and was elected its President in February, 1879. He married Martha
Ann Trailer Feb. 26,1852; she was born in Springfield, 111., June 23, 1831; they
have had nine children Laura, born Dec. 12, 1852, died Sept. 18, 1853; Hiram M.,
born March 2, 1854, died June 20, 1855 ; Stephen L., born Sept. 25, 1856; Sinai E. r Jan. 3, 1859; Franklin D., Feb. 23, 1861, died Sept. 30, 1863; Lydia A., born May
9, 1863; Mary I., Nov. 6, 1865; Juliette A., Sept. 21, 1868, died Aug. 10, 1870;
Alonzo A., born March 23, 1872. Mr. Blunt united with the Baptist Church Dec.
16, 1849; was ordained to the ministry, and has held the pastorate of several churches.
His father, Thomas F. Blunt, was born in Kent Co., Md., July 24, 1800, and moved
to Kentucky in his boyhood. Feb. 26, 1822, he married Sinai F. Alderson, of Hart
Co., Ky.; they had eight children, four of whom are living Aaron A., the subject of
this sketch, Lydia F., Hiram and Thomas R. In the fall of 1831, he moved to Cal- away Co., Mo., and in 1832, to what is now ‘Mason Co.; Dec. 6, 1833, he was an
organic or charter member of the Mt. Zion Baptist Church, and is the only male charter member now living in the county; in 1849, unaided and alone, he built a house for school and church purposes, and at his own expense provided a teacher for the ensuing
winter; he bought and used the first power threshing machine, also the first reaper ever used in Mason Co.; the 17th of August, 1872, had an attack of palsy of his right
side, from which he has never recovered. Though infirm and aged, he is living happy
and contented with his youngest son, Thomas R., at Field’s Prairie, in Bath Township,
Mason Co.

HENRY C. BURNHAM, farmer; P. 0. Mason City ; was born in Hampton,
Conn., Jan. 30, 1826. He was educated at home, and also furnished the advantages of
high schools and academies abroad. At the age of 19, he moved to Champaign Co.,
Ohio, and engaged in teaching school for awhile, and finally entered the mercantile business, which being too confining, he sold out and returned to Connecticut. He there
married Miss Angeline Currier Dec. 1(5, 1847. She was born in Genesee Co., N. Y., Dec. 16, 1825.. Her father, Elisha Currier, married Mary Blaisdell Oct. 9, 1817, in New Hampshire, and, in 1823, they moved to Naples, N. Y. Her mother died ( in Woodstock, Ohio, May 15, 1868, aged 73 years ; her father still resides in Woodstock,
in the 87th year of his age. Mr. Burnhani came to Illinois in the fall of 1852, and
settled in Salt Creek Township ; he is a member of and Master of Mason City Lodge,
No. 403, A., F. & A. Masons ; he has been Associate Justice of the County Court ; Treasurer of the school fund many years ; is Supervisor ; though in no sense has he ever been an office-seeker. They have seven children Lora M.,born Oct. 16, 1848 ; Alonzo
F., June 29, 1853 ; Rose A., Oct. 8, 1855 ; James E., January 9, 1857 ; George T.,
Aug.^20, 1860 ; Henry P., Dec. 7, 1862, and Caroline A., July 4, 1866. He owns a fine farm of 320 acres, and a good substantial home with modern improvements and comforts.

ABRAM CEASE, farmer and stock-raiser ; P. 0. Mason City ; was born in Luzerne
Co., Penn., June 6, 1824; he followed farming and lumbering. Married Ellen Wandel
Feb. 13, 1847 ; she was born in the same county Dec. 28, 1826. Her father, James
Wandel, was also born in that county May 3, 1790, and married Lucy Tilbury, who
died May 22, 1854, aged 61 years 10 months and 26 days. She was buried in Pennsylvania Township. James Wandel died in Luzerne Co. while on a visit to his old home,
Feb. 18, 1874. During his lifetime in the Eastern wilds, and on the Western prairies,
he was a great hunter ; many a noble buck, bear, wolf, catamount and fox, and smaller game
have succumbed to his unerring aim. Mr. and Mrs. Cease moved to Mason Co. in May,
1849 (her parents came a year later), and entered land in what is now Pennsylvania
Township. In the spring of 1851, they moved a granary building (thirteen miles),
which was 10×12 feet, on to their farm on Pennsylvania Lane, in which they (family of five persons) lived while they erected a house, which was the first built on Pennsylvania
Lane. They moved into it Sept. 15 following. That season they raised corn ; in the
fall sowed wheat; so they were comfortably fixed in their pioneer home. In 1867, sold their farm and moved to Mason City, and, in 1878, moved to their farm where they now reside, in Salt Creek Township. They have had ten children Elvira, born March
5, 1848, she married Schuyler J. Ross ; Eliva, Aug. 28, 1849, she married William
Stickler; Emma J., Nov. 16, 1850, she married Simon Stickler; Henry B., born Sept.
21, 1852. died Nov. 8, following: Mary M., born April 8, 1854, died Nov. 14, 1855 ; Charles W., born June 26, 1855 ; Frances L., Nov. 29, 1857, she married Isaac W.
Hendry; George A., March 2, 1860; James P., born Feb. 8, 1863, died Nov. 26, fol- lowing; and Oscar J., born June 16, 1865. They own a fine farm of 240 acres, also two houses and lots in Mason City. In politics, he is a Democrat.

GEORGE W. ELY, farmer; P. 0. Mason City; was born in Batavia, Clermont
Co.. Ohio, Feb. 11, 1820, where he followed market gardening. He married Lydia C. Noble July 27, 1846. She was born in Bethel, the same county, Feb. 26, 1826. They
moved to Cass Co., LI., in the spring of 1854, and to Mason Co., where he now resides, in the fall, on to his own farm. His father, George Ely, was born in New Jersey, and
married Mary Maunt in New Jersey. They moved to Clermont Co., Ohio, at an early
day ; lie bought land, and laid out Batavia on his farm ; he kept a hotel, and was Sheriff of the county a number of years. Mr. G. W. Ely commenced farming here under a cloud of unfavorable circumstances, largely owing to the breaking-out of the rebellion,
being in debt, having to pay exorbitant interest (18 per cent), his corn bringing only 8
to 10 cents per bushel, but energy and perseverance have enabled him to overcome and
rise above all these troubles, and place him and his in comfort and independence. They
have five children Sarah J., born July 6, 1846; Eugene B., Dec. 4, 1848; George
C., Nov. 8, 1851 ; John H., Sept. 9, 1801 ; James N., May 24, 1863. The first three were born in Newtown, Ohio, aud the other two in Salt Creek Township. He owns a
fine farm of 304 acres, and a good home. In politics, is a Republican.

WILLIAM P. FAULKNER, farmer and stock-raiser ; P. O. Mason City ; was
born in Dearborn Co., Ind., Dec. 23, 1825 ; with his parents, he went to Fulton Co.,
111., Nov. 30, 1838, and, in February, 1839, to Mason Co. In the spring of 1851, he
began farming on his own account; not being worth a dollar, yet his credit enabled him
to buy forty acres prairie land on time, and live in a shanty until they could do better. He married Melissa A. Virgin March 20, the same year; she was born in Ohio Dec. 4,
lS:n. They had five children Thomas J., born Dec. 27, 1852, and died March 8,
1853 ;/ Eliza J., born Feb. 25, 1854, died Aug. 3, 1873; Arabella E., born Feb. 28,
1856, died April 15, 1857; Belle A., born Nov. 6, 1860, died April 28, 1865, and
Francis R., born Dec. 16, 1863. Mrs. Faulkner died March 22, 1877. His second
marriage was celebrated Sept. 5, 1877, with Mrs. Mahulda Phillips, of Mason Co. ; she was born May ,24, 1855. She has, in her union with John M. Phillips, deceased, two
children Walter R., born Sept. 4, 1873, and William K., born Jan. 13, 1875. By
this second marriage, they have one child Ora May, born Feb. 19, 1879. Mr. Faulkner now owns 604 acres of as good land as there is in Mason Co.

DAVID W. HILYARD, farmer and stock-raiser ; P.O.Teheran; was born in Cumberland Co., N. J., April 1, 1827. Married Catharine F. Tomlinson, of the same
county, Sept. 4, 1851 ; her birthday occurred March 9, 1833; they moved to Mason
Co., 111., in March, 1855, and opened a general country store in Salt Creek Township,
but sold it out in the fall of 1856 ; in the spring of 1857, moved to the farm where
they now reside; Feb. 17, 1867, their house was entirely destroyed by fire, and so suddenly, though at midday, they found it impossible to save anything except a very little bedding and personal clotMng. They have had twelve children, viz., Mary E., born
Oct. 15, 1852 (she married Lorenzo F. Chester, and resides in Cass Co., Iowa); Hannah H., born Sept. 11, 1854 ; Preston J. P., June 4, 1856 (lives in Cass Co., Iowa) ; Emer E., Aug. 26, 1858, died Sept. 23, 1859 ; Lincoln Hamlin, born Aug. 26, 1860 ; Edmond F., Aug. 15, 1862; Robert F., March 2, 1865; Emer E., Dec. 10, 1867;
Charles B., Sept. 9, 1869; George H., Nov. 2, 1871, died Aug. 14, 1872 ; Walter R.,
born Feb. 16, 1874, died July 31, 1874, and Joseph L., born Sept. 30, 1876, died
Oct. 27, 1876. In New Jersey, Mr. Hilyard was a member of the I. 0. 0. F., and
in politics is a Republican ; he owns a good farm of 160 acres, and a nice home.

MICHAEL MALONEY, farmer and stock-raiser; P. 0. Mason City; was born
in Westinade Co., Ireland; in the fall of 1854, he landed in New York City; there he
worked at his trade stone-cutting until the next summer ; he then went to Mason
Co., 111., where he worked at farming about a year and a half for wages, then he rented
farm land ; in 1867, he made a small land purchase where he now resides, in Salt Creek
Tuwnship. He married Sarah E. Hadlock, of Mason Co., in 1861 ; they had two
children, viz., Mary A., born Aug. 4, 1862, died March 18. 1866 ; Edward F., born
March 9, 1864, died Sept. 24, 1864; Mrs. Sarah E. Maloney died Aug. 19, 1866.
His second marriage was celebrated March 26, 1867, with Mrs. Sarah A. Auxier ; she was born near Swing’s Grove, in Mason Co.. Dec. 13, 1840; she had four children by
her marriage with Samuel W. Auxier, viz., George W., born July 19, 1855, died Oct.
22, 1864; ‘Mary L., born April 3, 1857, died Sept. 10, 1858 ; John, born July 8, 1860,
and Samuel L., born March 26, 1862. Mr. and Mrs. Maloney have five children, viz., Anna Virgin, born Jan. 31, 1868; Elizabeth E., Nov. 16, 1870; Emma D., March 31,
1872; Thomas L., April 20, 1874, and Sarah May, June 8, 1876. Mr. Malony is serving his second term as School Director, and second year as Commissioner of Highways ; he belongs to the ” Modoc Tribe of Red Men,” No. 14; he owns a fine, wull- improved farm, containing 305 acres.

GEORGE W. MOSLANDER, farmer; P. O. Teheran; was born in Sangamon
Co., 111., May 13, 1844; son of James and Elizabeth Moslander ; they moved to Mason
Co. in 1845. He married Frances E. Douglas, of Fulton Co., Ill , Nov. 11, 1869 ; she was born in Clark Co., 111., Feb. 12, 1848; they have had three children, viz., Lawrence, born July 29, 1871, died July 31, 1872; Ida May, born Oct. 12, 1873; Louis,
June 28, 1875. In August, 1802, Mr. Moslander enlisted in Co. C, of the 85th I. V.
I., for three years’ service; was engaged in the battles of Peiryville, Ky., Stone Rive r, Chickamauga, Lookout Mountain, Kenesaw Mountain, and at the siege of Atlanta,
Ga. ; July 27, 1864, was taken prisoner and taken to Andersonville ; in three months, was removed to the prison in Millen, Ga. ; kept about three months, then to Savanna,
Ga., about six weeks ; he was then taken back to Andersonville, where he was kept till April 29, 1865 ; was then sent to Jacksonville, Fla., and exchanged ; he was given
transportation from there to Annapolis, Md. ; thence to St. Louis, Mo. ; thence to
Springfield, 111., where he got his discharge, in June, 1865. When he entered Andersonville prison, he weighed 145 pounds; when he left it, his weight was reduced to 65
pounds. Comment is unnecessary here. He then returned to his farm in Salt Creek
Township, where he now resides, and owns a fine home and farm of 1 60 acres.

WILLIAM McCARTY, farmer and breeder of blooded Holstein and Jersey
cattle and Yorkshire swine; P. 0. Mason City; was ‘born in Menard Co., 111., Dec. 11,
1845 ; is the eldest son of Thomas McCarty, of Mason City. He married Sarah J. Ely, daughter of George W. Ely, of Salt Creek Township, Dec. 16, 1866; they have
four children, viz., William E., born Sept. 11, 1867; George T., March 14, 1870;
Malinda J., Sept. 25, 1873, and Francis Otis, Feb. 19, 1878. He is working one of
his father’s farms in Salt Creek Township, of 240 acres, and has a pleasant home.
JOHN McCARTY, farmer and stock-raiser ; P. 0. Mason City ; was born in Clark Co., Ohio, April 19, 1836 ; came to Menard Co., 111., with his parents in the fall of 1838 ; in 1839, moved to Mason Co., where he now resides ; has always followed
farming and raising stock; his father and mother moved from North Carolina to Ohio.
Mr. McCarty married Anna Josephine Beck November 14, 1867 ; she was born in Shelby Co., Ohio, March 9, 1847. Mr. McCarty began life with nothing and never had a cent given him ; he now owns a fine home and 1,066 acres of land in Salt Creek
Township and ten acres inside the corporation of Mason City. Is a Director in the
First National Bank of Mason City ; was Commissioner of Highways nine years, but
declined the honor in 1878. He belongs to Modoc Tribe of Red Men, No. 14, of
Mason City. They have two children Onie Bell, born May 7, 1869, and Ida Dell,
born Jan. 10, 1873.

JACOB F. MULFORD, farmer: P. 0. Mason City : was born in Dearborn Co.,
Ind., Aug. 12, 1838; came to Mason Co., 111., in November, 1847. Aug. 1, 1861, he
enlisted in Co. A, 28th I. V. I., for three years’ service ; previously, he enlisted for the ninety days’ call, but was not ordered out unti] after he re-enlisted, as above stated : he received a bullet in his leg at the battle of Shiloh that laid him up about two months ; he was in many other and some serious engagements ; he re-enlisted Jan. 4. 1863, for another three years or during the war, and remained in the service almost a year after the surrender of the last rebel ; was discharged at Brownsville, Texas, April 14, 1866 ; what were le’t of their regiment disbanded at Springfield, 111. He married Miss Clarinda McCarty May 27, 1866 ; she was born in Salt Creek Township Mar?h 18,
1848 ; they have had nine children Thomas E., born April 28, 1867 ; Carrie I., Dec.
5, 1868; Norman 0., March 7, 1870; Effie M., Sept. 14, 1871 ; Rosie E., Jan. 29,
1873; Jacob E., Aug. 22, 1874, died Dec. 26, 1877 ; John H., born June 14, 1876;
William L., Nov. 4, 1877, and the baby, March 12, 1879. Sept. 12, 1874, they
moved to Missouri and remained three years, and then returned to the farm where they now reside in Salt Creek Township.

ALPHEUS P. ROLL, farmer and stock-raiser; P. 0. Teheran; was born in Sangamon Co. 111., Sept. 17, 1830; moved to the place where he now resides in Salt Creek Township in 1851. His father, William Roll, was born in Essex Co., N. J., June
16, 1786, and married Mary Eddy, of the same place; she was born Feb. 18, 1793 ; they moved to Sangamon Co., 111., in 1830 ; he died Aug. 11, 1849, and she died Dec.
6, 1876. Alpheus P., the subject of this sketch, married Mary E. Moslander April 6,
1850, at Bath, Mason Co., 111.; she was born in Cape May Co., N. J., Jan. 12, 1828 ; her father, James Moslander, and her mother, Elizabeth, were born in Cape May Co.,
N. J., he in 1795, she in 1806; they moved to Sangamon Co., 111., in 1840, and to Mason Co. in 1845 ; he died in April, 1849 ; she died Nov. 24, 1876. Mr. and Mrs.
Roll have had seven children L. G., born Sept, 24, 1850, died Aug. 28, 1851 ; James M., born Oct. 7, 1851, died Aug. 24, 1853; John E. and Mary E.^born Sept.
14, 1853; Rosa R., April 26, 1859, died Nov. 15, 1862; Charles H., born Sept. 13,
1863; Sidney R., March 19, 1866. John E. married Phoebe D. Roll; they reside near his father. Mary E. married William Peterson and resides in Cass Co., Iowa. Mr.
Roll owns 360 acres and a very fine home and surroundings complete, also a house and
lot in Mason City.

JOHN Y. SWAAR, farmer and stock-raiser; P.O. Mason City; was born in Scioto Co., Ohio, March 17, 1816 ; from 1829 to 1836, he was engaged in boating on
the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers; moved to Illinois in 1837; although he has ever
since lived within five miles of his present residence in Salt Creek Township, has lived
in Sangamon, Menard and Mason Cos. He mawied Sarah R. Powell, of Menard Co.,
Aug. 20, 1840 ; she was born in Ross Co., Ohio, June 4, 1822 ; her father and mother
moved from Kentucky to Ohio, and from there to Indiana, and to Menard Co. in 1825 ; they have had twelve children Henry M., born Aug. 9, 1841 ; Harriet E., Aug. 27,
1843 (married Edward S. Hibbard and lives in Kansas); William M., Nov. 3, 1845;
George H., Oct. 6, 1847 (married Mary E. Engel (deceased June 10, 1879, aged 19
years 4 months and 3 days); Sarah K., born April 6, 1850 (married William Markwell); Alcy J., born Feb. 20, 1852; Samuel P., Sept. 1, 1854, died Sept. 14, same
year; Amanda I., born Nov. 26, 1855; John C., Dec. 21, 1857; Oratia N. and
Letitia A., Sept. 12, 1859 ; Abigail, Oct. 4, 1863. Mr. Swaar and his sons own 640
acres of fine land in Salt Creek Township.

PULASKI SCOVIL, farmer; P. 0. Teheran; was born in Litchfield Co.,
Conn., January 28, 1808; in 1826, he went to Livingston Co., N. Y., bought a sawmill and 300 acres of timber, which he soon sold at an advance, and went to Brockport,
in company with a silversmith and jeweler ; but he soon had the business alone,
and manufactured silverware and sent out peddlers of his wares and jewelry until 1831,
when he moved to Geneva, N. Y., continuing in the same business, with the addition
of dry goods and notions. In July, 1831, he married Sarah Jerome; she was born in Onondaga Co., N. Y., in 1813, and deceased in 1840. In the fall of 1832, betook his broken stocks to Buffalo, N. Y., and opened an auction store; it took three months to dispose of all the goods ; he then went to Cincinnati, Ohio, and commenced the manufacturing of silverware and the jewelry business in general, which he continued successfully five years ; in the spring of 1837, he moved to Havana, in this county, where he
owned an interest in a steam saw-mill, bought the balance of the mill, and went to lumbering generally; this mill burned down in 1841 ; he then went to Waterford, Fulton
Co., 111., and bought an old mill and fitted it up, and, in 1845, he built another ; both of
these were destroyed by fire in 1850 uninsured ; he then went to Salt Creek Township,
where he now resides, and has since followed farming ; the first year, with the help of one man, he broke 120 acres of prairie, from which he got his first crop of fall wheat
.’5,5(1(1 bushels, which may be considered a good yield. The issue, living, of his union
with Sarah Jerome are Louisa, Ellen, George W. and Emily. His second marriage was
with Olive Cross, of Havana, III., in the fall of l842 ; she died in 1845 ; he then
married for his third wife Anna Bordwine, of Fulton Co., 111., in 1847 ; by this union,
they have one son living Benjamin F. His fourth marriage was with Caroline N.
Button, of Connecticut, in 1855; she died in 1860; he then married Mrs. Hannah
Jones June 23, 1862; she was born in Washington Co., Ohio”, Dec. 29,
1832; they have, by this issue, five children living Katie S., Pulaski J.,
Oliver H., Martha L. and Arthur A. By her marriage with Greenberry Jones,
she has four children living William E., Abner, Mary K. and Cornelia Jones. Mr.
Scovil owns 565 acres of splendid land in Salt Creek Township, and a fine home and
surroundings, and 400 acres in Missouri.

Baseball History- How Cleveland Become the Indians

This story begins on October 24, 1871, with the birth of Louis Sockalexis. He was a member of the Penobscot Indian tribe in Maine. He grew to be six feet tall and had a muscular build in which he would use to become a spectacular athlete in his youth. He was the best athlete among his peers and went on to play semipro baseball and that was when he got noticed.

In 1894, he played baseball at Ricker Classical Institute in Maine and also played on various teams during the summer. One of his teammates, Mike Powers, convinced Louis to enroll at Holy Cross to play baseball. Sockalexis was a Catholic and a decent student and quickly was accepted.

He proceeded to bat .436 in 1895 and .444 in 1896 for the Holy Cross team. Along with that, he was a star athlete on the first football team in 1896 where he excelled as the running back. In the spring, he ran track and many days he won as many as five first-place medals. However, it was baseball that he got the most notice playing. It has been reported a few professors measured one of Sockalexis’ throws and claim he tossed in 413 feet.

The major league teams had a keen interest in him but the Cleveland Spiders had two players that had direct connections to Holy Cross athletics. In 1896, Sockalexis and Powers left school and enrolled at Notre Dame University in South Bend, Indiana. He last no more than three months before he was kicked out of school as they both got into a fight at a tavern over a girl and basically destroyed the place.

With no college affiliation and no baseball, he signed with Cleveland in the winter and worked hard on training in the offseason to make the club in the Spring? He showed up in top shape and impressed manager Patsy Tebeau that he made the squad. One sportswriter was impressed with the Penobscot Indian player and referred to the team as “Tebeau’s Indians.”  The name didn’t stick but it planted a seed for later in baseball history.

Spring training was a time for Sockalexis to impress the baseball world. The Spiders played their first intrasquad game on April 2. Tebeau divided the team into the “Indians” and the “Papooses,” and Sockalexis, batting cleanup for the Indians, drilled three hits, scored three runs, and threw a runner out at the plate from deep right field. He was a wonder.

Things went well until early July when it was discovered Sockalexis has a huge problem with drinking alcohol in excess. That evening it is said he either jumped or was pushed out of a second floor window at a brothel that he frequented and promptly injured his ankle very badly. When he got back to the club, he was sent to a doctor that put a cast on it for almost a week. While his team was on the road, he was drinking every night a the local tavern.

There are stories galore from here on out about how he lost his baseball skills as they eroded due to inebriation. He dropped fly balls, he couldn’t run the bases properly and now moved from team to team trying to hang on in baseball but to no avail. He left baseball in 1898 and went back to Maine to play on some local teams. He played in 94 major league games.

Back in Maine, he tried to teach other children to play baseball even after taking a job in the logging industry cutting down trees. But at the age of 42, he suffered a heart attack and died. In 1915, team owner Charles Somers was looking for a new name for his team when he decided to revive the name that was given almost 20 years before and called it the Indians.

 

 

UPDATE: All Book Reviews have been moved to our site, KnupSports HERE.

 

It is my hope to read each of these books this year along with some new ones from 2018. I am fortunate enough to have two publishers that are sending me copies of books about to be released. I will add them as I finish the review. Check out our book reviews are KnupSports.

 

The following books have been named as Finalists for the 2017 CASEY Award for Best Baseball Book of the Year:

 Casey Stengel: Baseball’s Greatest Character * Marty Appel   MY BOOK REVIEW HERE 

Dynastic, Bombastic, Fantastic: Reggie, Rollie, Catfish, and Charlie Finley’s Swinging A’s * Jason Turbow

Electric October: Seven World Series Games, Six Lives, Five Minutes of Fame that Lasted Forever * Kevin Cook * Henry Holt

Lefty O’Doul: Baseball’s Forgotten Ambassador * Dennis Snelling

Leo Durocher: Baseball’s Prodigal Son * Paul Dickson

Lost Ballparks * Dennis Evanosky and Eric J. Kos

The Pride of the Yankees: Lou Gehrig, Gary Cooper, and the Making of a Classic * Richard Sandomir

Smart Baseball: The Story behind the Old Stats that Are Ruining the Game, the New Ones that are Running It, and the Right Way to Think about Baseball * Keith Law * William Morrow

The Streak: Lou Gehrig, Cal Ripken Jr., and Baseball’s Most Historic Record * John Eisenberg

The Year of the Pitcher: Bob Gibson, Denny McLain, and the End of Baseball’s Golden Age * Sridhar Pappu


I am always looking for sports books to read. If you have any to loan or give away, I would be pleased to read it.

Thanks.

[email protected]

The Worst Team in Major League History

It started with the Cleveland Spiders in the 1890’s. They had been a decent team until their owners purchased a second team which was the St. Louis Perfectos in 1899.

The owners decided they wanted to excite the fan base in the new city so they dumped their roster from Cleveland to St. Louis. The Spides were really bad as they lost 11 games in a row 6 times during the season and their best pitcher was rookie Harry Colliflower. He won one game and lost eleven times.

Once while in Cincinnati while staying at their hotel, they talked a local tobaccoist named Eddie Kolb to be their starting pitcher for the next game. He lost 19-3.

Fans began staying home and not attending the games and the locals quit calling them the Spiders and smacked the nickname “Exiles” or “Wanderers” as the team name.

The team had a final recordd of 20 wins and 134 losses. Baseball executives and league brass began a move to outlaw owning more than one team.

June book Reviews (part 1)

I have had the good fortune to hook up with three publishing companies, Sports Publishing, University of Nebraska Press, and Triumph Books, to search their catalogs and request books to read. In exchange, I give their publicist a fair and honest review of each book. To date, I have completed nearly 50 book reviews in the previous 15 months. The fruits of my labor can be found at KnupSports.

I expect to finish 6 books in June. Here are the first three books that I received as I expect to get a few more on my doorstep soon.

 

JUNE READING (part 1)

 

As a child, Anne Keene’s father, Jim Raugh, suited up as the team batboy and mascot. He got to know his baseball heroes personally, watching players hit the road on cramped, tin-can buses, dazzling factory workers, kids, and service members at dozens of games, including a war-bond exhibition with Babe Ruth at Yankee Stadium.

 

 

 

After being drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles in 1961 out of Northwestern University, Cross went on to have a nine-year career in the NFL, appearing in two Pro Bowls. After retiring, he joined the Eagles as a coach and remained so until 1971 when a rare opportunity came along to join CBS Sports with no experience.

 

 

 

The author takes a candid and revealing look at the people and events that made Manning’s and his 2007 Giants’ success one of the greatest stories in modern sports history. Complete with exclusive interviews with NFL stars, coaches, and executives.

 

 

MORE TO COME

(2/19/18) Here are the scores for the Top 25 teams in College Baseball from the Opening Weekend. Not that Mississippi State lost all 3 games as did Cal State Fullerton. Vanderbilt won two of three from Duke as both teams were ranked. Many will tell you not to put too much stock into the first bunch of games.

1 Florida                 3-0 Siena: W 7-1, 10-2, W 19-2
2 Oregon State      3-0 New Mexico W 5-2, Gonzaga W 4-3, Cal Poly W 16-7
3 Texas Tech         4-0 Maine: W 4-2, W 12-1, W 12-5, W 21-6
4 Arkansas             3-0 Bucknell: W 14-2, W 32-4, W 3-1
5 Florida State       3-0 Xavier: W 11-1, W 7-2, W 5-1
6 North Carolina   2-1 at South Florida: L 4-3, W 12-5, W 9-8
7 TCU                      2-1 at Grand Canyon: W 3-2, W 14-6, L 9-8
8 Kentucky             4-0 Wofford W 6-1, USC Upstate W 6-5, W 10-3, Evansville W 8-4
9 Ole Miss               3-0 Winthrop: W 7-3, W 8-1, W 3-1
10 Texas A&M        3-0 Rhode Island: W 4-1, W 4-3, W 10-2
11 UCLA 3-0 Portland: W 7-2, W 13-0, W 15-3
12 Mississippi State 0-3 at Southern Miss: L 11-0, L 7-4, L 5-2
13 Stanford 3-0 CS Fullerton: W 5-1, W 5-3, W 6-5
14 Vanderbilt 2-1 Duke: W 9-1, L 5-4, W 9-1
15 Louisville 3-0 Richmond W 4-3, The Citadel W 8-3, George Mason W 15-8
16 LSU 1-2 Notre Dame: W 7-6, L 10-5, L 11-3
17 CS Fullerton 0-3 at Stanford: L 5-1, L 5-3, L 6-5
18 Dallas Baptist 3-0 Monmouth: W 7-4, W 5-3, W 15-4
19 Virginia 2-1 UCF L 6-3, Samford W 10-4, Rice W 3-0
20 South Alabama 3-1 Kansas State W 12-5, Oklahoma W 6-5, Virginia Tech W 7-5, Indiana L 8-4
21 Texas 2-1 Louisiana: W 3-0, W 5-3, L 2-1
22 West Virginia 1-2 at Jacksonville: W 5-4, L 7-4, L 2-1
23 Indiana 2-1 Oklahoma L 6-3, Kansas State W 5-0, South Alabama W 8-4
24 Houston 2-1 Holy Cross: L 3-2, W 7-1, W 3-2
25 Duke 1-2 at Vanderbilt: L 9-1, W 5-4, L 9-1

 

Monday finds only 10 games on the schedule for President’s Day.

Virginia Tech/Kansas St.

BYU/CSUN

Stony Brook/Nicholls State

Indiana/Coastal Carolina

Cal Poly/Gonzaga

Indiana State/UNLV

Washington/Sacramento St.

St. Mary’s (Cal.)/CSU Bakersfield

New Mexico/Oregon St.

Stanford/UC Davis

 

Is Ignorance Really Bliss?

Is Ignorance Really Bliss?

We are living in interesting times. That has been stated throughout every generation. The fact is all of them have been right. The world is moving faster today than ever before. The written word and spoken word is seen and heard almost instantaneously if we want it to be. But now we are seeing an influx of people becoming involved in activities that have been stagnant for a long time. These activists have created a new discourse into talking to each other and particularly on how to have a national discussion when people disagree.

Politics Permeates our Discussions

One of the most common topics in this country is politics and it has become apparent that there is a problem with how we are sharing our ideas with one another. Who we vote for should not define who we are. We should not be judging others for who they are just because they may have views that oppose our own. We live in a country that was built on the idea of being able to have controversy without conflict. The concept of being able to have a rational debate on educated ideas is what America’s structure consists of. Agreeing to disagree peacefully has become a lost art.

Aside from all the social media trends and endless blogging that contains no factual information, it is obvious that the majority of people are failing to have the drive to learn new ideas. The thought of having views that are your own and not being able to sustain a conversation with someone with opposing views shows a lack of confidence in what you believe in. If you have beliefs that are supported by facts, then there should be a drive to first, spread your ideas and reasoning, and second, absorb and understand the reasoning behind the views that you are opposing.

Personally, I believe that it is a sense of embarrassment that drives this failure to peacefully communicate in our society. People are ashamed of the lack of factual knowledge that they have; therefore, this leads them to becoming hostile when someone tests their ignorance. This can also be compared to the saying, “Ignorance is bliss”, which seems to be growing in popularity in the younger generation. But that is another problem of its own.
If you want to live in ignorance, that is your right as an American. It is not a right however, if within that desire lies a sense of entitlement for their ignorance. While all Americans are free to follow whoever and whatever ideas they please, they should not discredit all other ideas merely out of ignorance about them. I find it ironic when someone desires to spread ideas but refuses to obtain any new ones. How did that person learn that information in the first place if all they are interested in is people accepting their ideas or convictions?

The point here is Americans are residing in a country that is able to contain a world of opposing ideas in one place, under the banner of freedom. We are free to believe in what we want as well as what we do not. We are free to spread and accept all ideas we interact with. We are free to obtain any knowledge we want even if we do not agree with it. We should not allow conflict to have a crippling effect on our awareness.

 

Just my thoughts on that!

It’s time I came clean. Not many people know this fact about me. Some would say they aren’t surpised. 🙂 I graduated last in my class in the 8th grade. True fact. I will get back to that later. What I want to let you know about will be from my Junior High school years. I will touch on the 7th grade tournament but I am saving the majority of that for a complete blog all by itself. These are some random thoughts about Junior High School

 

JH was Cool

These years were very cool. It was the first time in your life you got to move around for classes and you had some freedom between classes. It was a couple of years of experimenting and actually being able to participate in sports every night after school that made Junior High a special place. It was also cool to get out of Manito.

 

Dancing

There was an odd phenomenon called dancing. It was a horrible thing to do in Junior High school. The problem with this was it required that male and females to touch each other. But what came with it was the stigma of knowing how to dance. The school always had a back-to-school dance about the second week of the year. It was from 7-9 in the gym. The vast majority of the boys hung together and the girls all huddled off to the side. Every once in awhile some couples put on an attempt to dance but that was far and in between. What went on was the gossip that floated around the gym. Some girl would come over to the boys and tell us so and so like one of the boys. Later, a boy floated over to the girls and told what had been said in their group. This went on for about an hour and a half. By the time you worked up the courage to ask a girl to dance there was 15-20 minutes left. It was a definite social experiment.

Another thing that happened was in PE, Mrs. Rossi would have a unit in dancing. This was not good. You could actually get paired up with a girl that carried cooties and you had no control over it. She lined us up and we called out a number and that was our partner. We did that several different times and was quite embarrassing.

 

Arts and Crafts

 

We had to take Arts and Crafts. Mr Guy was the teacher and he was a very odd duck. Now for me, this was one of the worst classes that I could be in. I had/have absolutely no talent in art or in the making of crafts. It was a boring class to be in. One assignment was to sculpture something. I didn’t do until he announced that it was due tomorrow so those not done should take their sculpture block home to complete. I had done nothing to mine at all. Mid-evening, my brother Lyle asked me what it was and what was supposed to be done with it. I told him and explained I wasn’t going to do the work. He said very little and I went to bed. Lo and behold, in the morning there was this great looking sphinx sitting on the table for me to take to class. I was a bit embarrassed because I knew and everyone knew I had no talent. I took it to class and turned it in. Just before the bell was to ring, Mr. Guy called me up and asked me if I had actually completed the project or did someone else do it. What am I to do? Just what I need to do to get a decent grade…. I told him I did it all by myself. I got an A on the project but he and I both knew I didn’t do it. Thanks, Lyle!

 

Baseball

It was a blast. Two weeks before the first day of class we are practicing baseball every day. I had never experienced anything like it and Junior High was going to be so much fun. As the practices progressed, it appeared I was going to be the starting shortstop as a 7th grader on the 8th-grade team. Until….. one practice the catcher (I don’t remember who it was) got a ball fouled off his knuckles and broke two fingers. Coach Rudd took me aside and said I was to be the teams’ catcher for the season. I was just happy to play and that year and that position was a lot of fun. Jim Petty was a fireballing pitcher and he and I had played baseball in the summer for years. I loved being catcher as you were into every play of the game.

I remember two particular plays and they likely were in different games. I wasn’t a power hitter but a gap man. I was up in the bottom of the 6th inning and we were down 2 runs and the bases were loaded. Do you think I hit one out of the park? Well, not exactly. I hit the ball hard just over the second baseman’s glove that rolled on the grass in the outfield and just kept rolling and rolling. I was fast enough to make it a grand slam and we won in the 7th inning by two runs.

Another play I remember was in the field behind the plate. No big deal but I remember this. The pitch by Petty got away from me or he threw it wild with a runner on third base and the baseball rolled to the fence. I went back to get it and tossed it backward towards the plate as Jim Petty dove into the runner and he was called out. Just a cool blind throw that ended the inning. I think I remember that because the umpire told me it was the best play he had ever seen in a Junior High game.

 

Getting Stitches

Letting me share two stories with you about getting injured in the 7th grade in PE. One day we were playing flag football. Both the 7th and 8th grade boys played together. I was playing defense when the quarterback threw the ball downfield when I jumped to catch it. Problem was that at the same time on offense Leonard Wheat jumped to catch it and his teeth caught me just above the right eye and I was instantly bleeding all over. Whoever the PE teacher was sent a kid to the office to let Mr. Rudd know we needed an ambulance. He didn’t call anybody. He drove his car out to the field, put me in it and drove m to Havana hospital. It was the first time I ever heard a teacher/principal cuss as we were a fes miles from town he said, “You have a hell of a gash there, Tommy. You’re going to get damn stitches for that.” Well, they called my mom from the school and she met us there. I had 14 stitches. Ten above my eye and 4four on the eyelid. My actual eye had no damage. I went to school the next day.

In the spring I was pitching softball in PE when a line drive smacked me in the right eye. They called my mom and she took me home. I didn’t go to school the next day…….. because it was game one of the 1964 World Series and the Cardinals and Yankees were playing.

 

 

7th grade Basketball

Basketball was a blast. It was about this time of the year that I really started to like girls. However, I will add that it was also becasue girls started liking me. You see, I was the only 7th grader started on the lightweight team. Mark Thompon, Dennis Specketer, John Middleton, Lynn Vogel and myself were the primary starters. We had first year coach/science teach Frank Gassmann, a new SIU grad, as our leader. The core 5 of the team tried to emulate the players from the starting five of the then Bradley Braves. I was Joe Strawder, somebody else was LaVern Tart, another Bobby Joe Mason and I don’t remember the other three.

Our season was loads of fun as we kept winning and winning. We were 22-0 going into the state tournament to be played in Rantoul. It was because of this success that I can remember that my life was a blast. The State Touney brought out the entire towns and neighboring villages along with our own student body with fan busses and such. More on the State Tournament in a few weeks.

 

Jamboree

Remember this? The Mason County Jamboree. I don’t have anything to say about it but I enjoy it and won the baseball toss four years in a row. However, it leads into my next story.

Graduated Last in My Class

I suppose I shouldn’t be admitting this and should be ashamed that I graduated last in my class when diplomas were given out a graduation. I still shake my head but there was to be graduation on Thursday night at the Forman Junior High School. On the previous weekend I was in the Mason County Jamboree on Saturday and all went well. That night I began to feel bad. All day Sunday I laid on the couch in some pain not doing so well. My parents thought maybe I had hurt myself at the Jamboree. They mentioned a rupture and to an 8th grade kid that was an embarrassment.

Finally, Monday morning they took me to the hospital and I was diagnosed with appendicitis. They did emergency surgery Monday afternoon and I got out of the hospital on Wednesday. I missed three days of school for it. Come ThursdayI really hadn’t walked very far but about 5pm I insisted I go to the graduation. My parents allowed me if I walked sparingly. The school was in an uproar as they had practiced the ceremony and now I had put everything out of kilter. So they made an administrative decision. Instead of changing everything they just added me to the end. So, they added a chair for me at the end they called my name to graduate and I  walked up there slowly to the podium and received my diploma. Since I was last the crowd cheered loudly ( I am sure it was ALL for me) and officially graduate last in my class.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baseball History

1943 New York entrepreneur William D. Cox purchases the bankrupt Phillies from the National League. The 33 year-old new owner will be banned from baseball in November by commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis when he admits to making some “sentimental” bets on his team during the season.

1954 In their first major trade since moving from St. Louis, the Orioles, formerly known as the Browns, exchange outfielders with the Senators, sending Roy Sievers to Washington for Gil Conan. Sievers will spend five solid seasons in the nation’s capital, making the All-Star squad twice, and Conan, playing less than two seasons in Baltimore, compiles a .266 batting average with three home runs, appearing in 155 games.

1960 Walter O’Malley completes the purchase of land just north of downtown Los Angeles as the site of a new ballpark for his transplanted Brooklyn club. The Dodger owner paid a reported $494,000 for the property at Chavez Ravine, believed to be worth $92,000 at the time.

1967 During a special softball exhibition game, pitcher Eddie Feigner strikes out six consecutive major leaguers, a group that includes five future Hall of Famers. The victims include Willie Mays, Willie McCovey, Brooks Robinson, Harmon Killebrew, Roberto Clemente and Maury Wills.

1998 Long time baseball announcer Harry Caray dies at the age of 84 after suffering a heart attack four days earlier while having Valentine’s Day dinner with his wife, Dutchie. The colorful “Mayor of Rush Street” started his career in 1945 with the Cardinals and also did play-by-play for the A’s, White Sox, and the Cubs during his 52 years in the broadcast booth
.
1999 The Blue Jays trade Roger Clemens to the Yankees for David Wells, Graeme Lloyd, and Homer Bush.

2005 After five months of captivity in a Venezuelan jungle surrounded by explosives to keep her from escaping, Ugueth Urbina’s mother, Maura Villarreal, is rescued during a daring eight-hour police raid. The kidnappers had demanded $6 million ransom from the Tigers’ relief pitcher for his mom’s freedom.

2009 After considering to play for Atlanta, a location which is closer to his family, Ken Griffey Jr. agrees to a one-year deal with the Seattle Mariners. The 39 year-old outfielder joins a list of superstars, Babe Ruth (Boston), Willie Mays (New York), and Hank Aaron (Milwaukee), to choose the city where they played with their first team as the place to end their major league career.

2009 At 11:25 a.m., the last remaining piece of Shea Stadium, the ramp to section 5, is demolished, marking the end of the New York ballpark where the Mets played for 44 years. The space will become a parking lot for the team’s new home, the $800-million Citi Field, which will open in April.

2011 The Orioles officially announce the signing of Vladimir Guerrero after the 36 year-old passed his physical. The team’s new everyday designated hitter, who batted .300 with 29 homers and 115 RBIs with the American League Champion Rangers last season, agrees to a one-year, $8 million deal to play in Baltimore.

2011 In the first game of the season, Garrett Wittels goes 0-for-4 against Southeastern Louisiana, leaving the Florida International University junior two games short of Robin Ventura’s Division l record of hitting in 58 consecutive games, established by the former major leaguer in 1987. The overall NCAA mark is 60 straight games, set by Damian Costantino playing for Division III Salve Regina from 2001-03.

A Joint Congressional Resolution requiring the Secretary of War “to provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent, and at other points in the States and Territories…and for giving notice on the northern lakes and on the seacoast, by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms” was introduced. Congress passed the resolution and on February 9, 1870, President Ulysses S. Grant signed it into law. A new national weather service had been born within the U.S. Army Signal Service’s Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce that would affect the daily lives of most of the citizens of the United States through its forecasts and warnings for years to come. Gen. Albert J. Myer served as the first Director of the new weather service.

For the Whole Story

he National Weather Service (NWS) is an agency of the United States government that is tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, and other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection, safety, and general information. It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) branch of the Department of Commerce, and is headquartered in Silver Spring, Maryland (located just outside Washington, D.C.). The agency was known as the United States Weather Bureau from 1890 to 1970, when it adopted its current name.
The NWS performs its primary task through a collection of national and regional centers, and 122 local weather forecast offices (WFOs). As the NWS is a government agency, most of its products are in the public domain and available free of charge.

wea01905

In 1870, the Weather Bureau of the United States was established through a joint resolution of Congress signed by President Ulysses S. Grant with a mission to “provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent and at other points in the States and Territories…and for giving notice on the northern (Great) Lakes and on the seacoast by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms.” The agency was placed under the Secretary of War as Congress felt “military discipline would probably secure the greatest promptness, regularity, and accuracy in the required observations.” Within the Department of War, it was assigned to the U.S. Army Signal Service under Brigadier General Albert J. Myer. General Myer gave the National Weather Service its first name: The Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce.
Cleveland Abbe – who began developing probabilistic forecasts using daily weather data sent by the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce and Western Union, which he convinced to back the collection of such information in 1869 – was appointed as the Bureau’s first chief meteorologist. In his earlier role as the civilian assistant to the chief of the Signal Service, Abbe urged the Department of War to research weather conditions to provide a scientific basis behind the forecasts; he would continue to urge the study of meteorology as a science after becoming Weather Bureau chief. While a debate went on between the Signal Service and Congress over whether the forecasting of weather conditions should be handled by civilian agencies or the Signal Service’s existing forecast office, a Congressional committee was formed to oversee the matter, recommending that the office’s operations be transferred to the Department of War following a two-year investigation.
The agency first became a civilian enterprise in 1890, when it became part of the Department of Agriculture. Under the oversight of that branch, the Bureau began issuing flood warnings and fire weather forecasts, and output the first daily national surface weather maps; it also established a network to distribute warnings for tropical cyclones as well as a data exchange service that relayed European weather analysis to the Bureau and vice versa. The first Weather Bureau radiosonde was launched in Massachusetts in 1937, which prompted a switch from routine aircraft observation to radiosondes within two years. The Bureau prohibited the word “tornado” from being used in any of its weather products out of concern for inciting panic (a move contradicted in its intentions by the high death tolls in past tornado outbreaks due to the lack of advanced warning) until 1938, when it began disseminating tornado warnings exclusively to emergency management personnel.
The Bureau would later be moved to the Department of Commerce in 1940. On July 12, 1950, bureau chief Francis W. Reichelderfer officially lifted the agency’s ban on public tornado alerts in a Circular Letter, noting to all first order stations that “Weather Bureau employees should avoid statements that can be interpreted as a negation of the Bureau’s willingness or ability to make tornado forecasts”, and that a “good probability of verification” exist when issuing such forecasts due to the difficulty in accurately predicting tornadic activity. However it would not be until it faced criticism for continuing to refuse to provide public tornado warnings and preventing the release of the USAF Severe Weather Warning Center’s tornado forecasts (pioneered in 1948 by Air Force Capt. Robert C. Miller and Major Ernest Fawbush) beyond military personnel that the Bureau issued its first experimental public tornado forecasts in March 1952. In 1957, the Bureau began using radars for short-term forecasting of local storms and hydrological events, using modified versions of those used by Navy aircraft to create the WSR-57 (Weather Surveillance Radar, 1957), with a network of WSR systems being deployed nationwide through the early 1960s; some of the radars were upgraded to WSR-74 models beginning in 1974.
The Weather Bureau became part of the Environmental Science Services Administration when that agency was formed in August 1966. The Environmental Science Services Administration was renamed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) on October 1, 1970, with the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act. At this time, the Weather Bureau became the National Weather Service.[5] NEXRAD (Next Generation Radar), a system of Doppler radars deployed to improve the detection and warning time of severe local storms, replaced the WSR-57 and WSR-74 systems between 1988 and 1997